try another color:
try another fontsize: 60% 70% 80% 90%
Let's Learn Turkish
Let's Learn Turkish - Haydi Türkçe Öğrenelim

Written Corrective Feedback and Students’ Uptake in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

Mediterranean Journal of Humanities
mjh.akdeniz.edu.tr
VI/1 (2016) 85-98
Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğretim Sürecinde Yazılı Düzeltme
Geribildirimleri ve Öğrencilerin Edimsel Çıkarımları
Written Corrective Feedback and Students’ Uptake in Teaching Turkish
as a Foreign Language
Gökhan ÇETİNKAYA∗
Nihat BAYAT∗∗
Seçil ALACA∗∗∗
Öz: Bu araştırmanın amacı, yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretim sürecinde öğretmenlerin öğrencilerin yazılı
metinlerine sundukları düzeltme geribildirimlerini yöneldikleri dilbilgisel boyut ve nitelikleri açısından
incelemek, ayrıca geribildirimlerin işlevselliğini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunda 2 ayrı
üniversiteye bağlı TÖMER’de 2014-2015 öğretim yılında B1 düzeyinde öğrenimlerini sürdüren 25
öğrenci ve 6 okutman yer almıştır. Öğrencilere bir metin yazdırılmış, yazdıkları metinler 6 ayrı okutmana
paylaştırılarak metinlerde yer alan dilbilgisel yanlışlara yönelik geribildirimler yazmaları istenmiştir.

A Study On The Word Frequency In Turkish Education As A Foreign Language1

International Journal of
Turkish Education and
Training
Uluslararası Türkçe
Eğitimi ve Öğretimi Dergisi
Sayfa:61-77
Sayı/Volume: 2
Yıl/Years 1
ISSN: 2458-9462
A Study On The Word Frequency In Turkish Education As A
Foreign Language1
Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçenin Öğretiminde Kelime Sıklığı
Üzerine Bir Çalışma
Ramazan Kılıçarslan2
, Ferdi Bülbül3
Abstract
Language education is a multidimensional process. During this process, the language
learners are expected to show same level of advance in linguistic skills. It is more difficult
especially in learning languages other than native language. In recent period, the interest of
foreigners in Turkish language has increased, and consequently teaching Turkish language to
foreigners in our country became more common. While teaching Turkish language to
foreigners, effective comprehension of all of the dimensions of linguistic skills is the most

The importance of strategies of social language learning and cooperative learning in the process of teaching Turkish as a foreign language

Full Length Research Paper
The importance of strategies of social language
learning and cooperative learning in the process of
teaching Turkish as a foreign language
Mehmet Celal VARIŞOĞLU
Department of Turkish Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziantep University, Turkey.
Received 3 January, 2016; Accepted 16 May, 2016
In order to implement the teaching of a foreign language at a desired level and quality, and to offer
some practical arrangements, which stand for to the best use of time, efforts, and cost, there is a need
for a road map. The road map in teaching is a learning strategy. This article shows how strategies of
social language learning and cooperative learning can be used in teaching of Turkish as a foreign
language. The article uses the framework of the research made on learning strategies and is based on
qualitative research methods. It evaluates the strategies which are connected to the social language

Why is it so difficult to learn English in Turkey?

Why is it so difficult to learn English in Turkey?

Learning another language, for most people, is excessively difficult and takes much commitment. Not all of us are gifted with the talent of learning languages. In fact, the majority of us find learning languages difficult. But what makes it so difficult? Not being talented? This is barely a reason. Talent is learned, not born. So what makes learning languages so hard?

ACADEMIC ESSAY WRITING IN TURKISH HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM: CRITICAL THINKING OR READY MADE STRUCTURE?

ACADEMIC ESSAY WRITING IN TURKISH HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM:
CRITICAL THINKING OR READY MADE STRUCTURE?
Onur ŞARAPLI
Merter –İstanbul
TURKEY
ABSTRACT
This study analyses the causes and the fundamental problems students in Turkey face when producing
scientific research papers focusing on measurement and assessment methods, curriculum design, English
language and academic writing skills of students. The study is based on a questionnaire consisting of 12
questions prepared in 2012. It was designed to measure the general research skills of 100 undergraduate
students from different programs at one of the universities in Turkey. Results showed that academic essay
writing is as difficult to university students as it is to academics. The researcher believes that this study can
emphasize why academic writing is an issue for scholars and university students in Turkey.
Key Words: Research methods, curriculum design, measurement and assessment methods.

Vowel Harmony

Vowel Harmony
In Turkish, words are constructed in such a way that the vowels follow a specific pattern. This pattern is called Vowel Harmony and is an important feature of the Turkish language. Vowel Harmony is used particularly when deciding which vowels should be used when adding a suffix to a word. By looking at a particular vowel in a word (usually the last vowel), the rules of Vowel Harmony help us to decide which vowels will be used after it. In order to understand Vowel Harmony we have to look at the different types of vowels that exist in Turkish:

Vowels: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü

Hard vowels: a, ı, o, u
Soft vowels: e, i, ö, ü

Straight vowels: a, e, ı, i
Round vowels: o, ö, u, ü

There are four Vowel Harmony rules in total: two Major Vowel Harmony and two Minor Vowel Harmony rules.

MAJOR VOWEL HARMONY
Part 1: Hard vowels

If the last vowel of a word is one of a/ı/o/u, vowels in the suffixes that follow it can only be one of a/ı/o/u.

Degrees Of Comparison

Degrees Of Comparison

We use Degrees of Comparison to compare people, places or things. An adjective can have one of three forms: Positive, Comparitive or Superlative. For example, for the adjective "big" the Positive form would be "big" itself, the Comparitive form would be "bigger" and the Superlative form would be "biggest".

In Turkish, we express the Comparitive form using "daha" and the Superlative form using "en". For example, for the adjective "büyük" the Positive form would be "büyük" itself, the Comparitive form would be "daha büyük" and the Superlative form would be "en büyük".

Examples:

Positive Comparitive Superlative
büyük daha büyük en büyük
big bigger biggest
küçük daha küçük en küçük
small smaller smallest
hızlı daha hızlı en hızlı
fast faster fastest
kolay daha kolay en kolay
easy easier easiest
iyi daha iyi en iyi
good better best
genç daha genç en genç
young younger youngest

Consonant Mutation

Consonant Mutation
In Turkish, there are certain consonants that are replaced by other letters when suffixes are added to them.

When we add a suffix to word that ends in "p/ç/t/k" and the consonant has a vowel both before and after it, the consonant will change:

p ➨ b
ç ➨ c
t ➨ d
k ➨ ğ/g
Examples:

(kitap) Benim kitabım - My book
(dolap) Dolaba koydum - I put it into the cupboard

(ağaç) Ağaca bak - Look at the tree
(borç) Borcum ne kadar? - How much do I owe?

(yoğurt) Hakan yoğurdu yedi - Hakan ate the yogurt
(dört) Saat dörde çeyrek var - The time is a quarter to four

(sözlük) İngilizce-Türkçe sözlüğün var mı? - Do you have an English-Turkish dictionary?
(çocuk) Fatih çocuğa şeker verdi - Fatih gave candy to the child
The letter "k" is replaced by a "g" instead of a "ğ" when it has a "n" before it and a vowel after it:

(renk) Göz rengi - Eye color
(kepenk) Ömer kepengi kapattı - Ömer closed the shutter

EXCEPTIONS

Telling The Time

Telling The Time
There are generally two ways of telling the time in Turkish:

As an answer to the question "What is the time?"
By specifying "At what time(?)" something will happen
Both rules make use of vowel harmony.

1. What is the time? - Saat kaç?

This is used when we want to tell the current time.

On the hour:

["Saat"] [hour]

03:00 : Saat üç
05:00 : Saat beş
10:00 : Saat on
18:00 : Saat altı
21:00 : Saat dokuz
Quarter past:

["Saat"] [hour + "ı/i/u/ü"] ["çeyrek geçiyor"]

03:15 : Saat üçü çeyrek geçiyor
05:15 : Saat beşi çeyrek geçiyor
10:15 : Saat onu çeyrek geçiyor
18:15 : Saat altıyı çeyrek geçiyor
21:15 : Saat dokuzu çeyrek geçiyor
Half past:

["Saat"] [hour] ["buçuk"]

03:30 : Saat üç buçuk
05:30 : Saat beş buçuk
10:30 : Saat on buçuk
18:30 : Saat altı buçuk
21:30 : Saat dokuz buçuk
Quarter to:

["Saat"] [hour + "a/e"] ["çeyrek var"]

03:45 : Saat dörde çeyrek var
05:45 : Saat altıya çeyrek var

Var And Yok

Var And Yok
In Turkish, "var" and "yok" are used to express the presence and absence of things. There are no direct English equivalents so understanding these concepts are important in learning Turkish. "Var" and "yok" are generally placed at the end of the sentence. There are four cases to be considered:

Positive - Var
Negative - Yok
Positive Question - Var mı
Negative Question - Yok mu
1. POSITIVE - VAR
Var basically means "there is".

Examples:
Garajda araba var - There is a car in the garage
Parkta çoçuk var - There is a child in the park
Futbol sahasında top var - There is a ball on the football field
Trende yolcu var - There is a passenger on the train
Camide müezzin var - There is a muezzin in the mosque
2. NEGATIVE - YOK
Yok is used to mean "there isn't".

Examples:
Garajda araba yok - There isn't a car in the garage
Parkta çoçuk yok - There isn't a child in the park
Futbol sahasında top yok - There isn't a ball on the football field

Plurals

Plurals
The plural suffixes in Turkish are -lar and -ler. We use the rules of Major Vowel Harmony to decide which suffix to use. Words whose last vowel is one of (a, ı, o, u) will get -lar added to it, while those whose last vowel is one of (e, i, ö, ü) will be followed by -ler.

Last Vowel Suffix
a, ı, o, u -lar
e, i, ö, ü -ler
Examples:
Araba - Arabalar (Car - Cars)
Kapı - Kapılar (Door - Doors)
Top - Toplar (Ball - Balls)
Soru - Sorular (Question - Questions)

Kalem - Kalemler (Pen - Pens)
Cami - Camiler (Mosque - Mosques)
Göz - Gözler (Eye - Eyes)
Türk - Türkler (Turk - Turks)

"If"

"If"
(sa/se)
We say "if" in Turkish by attaching the suffixes "sa/se" to the verb. "sa/se" can be used with both positive and negative verbs and is attached after the tense suffix. We choose the correct one based on the last vowel before it i.e. in the tense suffix. Onlar is an exception, we attach "sa/se" right at the end.

Last Vowel of verb root▶ a/ı/o/u e/i/ö/ü
Ben -sam -sem
Sen -san -sen
O -sa -se
Biz -sak -sek
Siz -sanız -seniz
Onlar -larsa -lerse
Examples:
In Turkish, "sa/se" is most often used with the present simple tense:

Ben yazarsam - If I write
Sen duyarsan - If you hear
Onlar gelirlerse - If they come
Siz izlerseniz - If you watch

Ben unutmazsam - If I don't forget
Sen istemezsen - If you don't want
O okumazsa - If he/she/it does not read
Biz düşünmezsek - If we don't think

...however, it could be applied to any of the tenses:

Ben gideceksem - If I will go
Sen başladıysan - If you started
Biz koşuyorsak - If we are running

"Must"

"Must"
(malı/meli)
In Turkish we express "must" using the suffixes "malı/meli". We do this by attaching them to the verb root.

Positive (Eg. You must come)
Negative (Eg. You must not come)
I Ben
You Sen
He / She / It O
We Biz
You (Plural) Siz
They Onlar
Personal pronouns
POSITIVE

We attach one of "malı/meli" depending on the verb root's last vowel. Thereafter we attach the personal suffix.

Last Vowel of verb root▶ a/ı/o/u e/i/ö/ü
Ben -malıyım -meliyim
Sen -malısın -melisin
O -malı -meli
Biz -malıyız -meliyiz
Siz -malısınız -melisiniz
Onlar -malılar -meliler
Suffixes to be added to the verb root (Positive)
Examples:
yazmak - to write gelmek - to come
Ben yazmalıyım I must write Ben gelmeliyim I must come
Sen yazmalısın You must write Sen gelmelisin You must come
O yazmalı He/she/it must write O gelmeli He/she/it must come
Biz yazmalıyız We must write Biz gelmeliyiz We must come
Siz yazmalısınız You must write Siz gelmelisiniz You must come

"Can"

"Can"

(abil/ebil)
In Turkish, we express "can" using the suffix "abil/ebil". We attach the appropriate one to the verb root based on its last vowel. "abil/ebil" can be used with any tense but is usually used with present simple tense.

POSITIVE

We begin with the verb root. We attach one of "abil/ebil" depending on the root's last vowel. If the letter at the end of the verb root is a vowel, we also first attach a "y" to prevent having two vowels side by side. Thereafter we add the tense suffix followed by the personal suffix.

Last vowel of verb root a/ı/o/u e/i/ö/ü
Suffix -[y]abil- -[y]ebil-
Examples:
Ben yazabilirim - I can write
Sen duyabilirsin - You can hear
Onlar gelebilirler - They can come
Biz yüzebiliriz - We can swim
O okuyabilir - He/she/it can read
Siz izleyebilirsiniz - You can watch

NEGATIVE

Passive Voice

Passive Voice
(n , ın/in/un/ün , ıl/il/ul/ül)
Verbs can be stated in the active voice or the passive voice.

In the active voice, the person or thing that is carrying out the action is clear. We know who the "doer" is.

In the passive voice, we are only aware of who/what the action is being performed upon. We don't always know who is doing the action. In English, we generally express the passive voice using "to be".

Active voice Passive voice
to watch to be watched
to open to be opened
to read to be read
to find to be found
In Turkish, we can convert a verb into the passive voice by attaching certain suffixes to its root. We obtain the verb root by removing the "mak/mek" from the infinitive form. For example, the verb root of "izlemek" would be "izle", "bulmak" would be "bul" and "açmak" would be "aç".

İçeriği paylaş