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Let's Learn Turkish
Let's Learn Turkish - Haydi Türkçe Öğrenelim

Turkish personal endings/suffixes

Turkish personal endings/suffixes

The 'Modern' LPT Case Name Grammatical Case Name What does it refer to? How is it recognized in English? How is it recognized in Turkish? Special Notes
The Dictionary Form The Absolute Form or Case The noun in its pure form. It's the 'no case' case. It's the noun on its own as you'd find it in a dictionary.
Example --
1) grape
2) muscle
3) weep(ing), cry(ing) [verbal noun] It's the noun on its own -- exactly as you'd find it in a dictionary.
Example --
1) üzüm
2) adale
3) ağlama [verbal noun]

The Direct Object Case Accusative or Definite Object or Direct Object Case The direct object of a verb or the object of certain prepositions. It's a noun found in the predicate of the sentence.
Example --
1) I ate the grape.
2) She pulled the muscle.
3) He likes repairing antiques.
4) He loves Turkish bread. By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-i/ü/ı/u [or by -yi/yü/yı/yu after a vowel].
Example --
1) Üzümü yedim.
2) Adaleyi incitti.
3) Antika onarmayı sever.
4) Türk ekmeği sever.
Before adding this suffix to nouns ending in k change the k to ğ (yumuşak-g).
The Possessive Case Genitive case Denotes possession, measurement, or source. A. Expressed in English by a prepositional phrase beginning with 'of'.
Examples A --
1) ...of the grape
2) ...of the muscle
3) ...of the repairing
4) ...of the bread
B. Expressed in English by apostophe-s.
Examples B --
1) Perihan's car
2) the man's coat By the presence of one of the following suffixes: -in/ün/ın/un
[or by -nin/nün/nın/nun after a vowel].
Examples A --
1) ...üzümün
2) ...adalenin
3) ...onarmanın
4) ...ekmeğin

Examples B --
1) Perihan'ın arabası
2) erkeğin paltosu Before adding this suffix to nouns ending in k change the k to ğ (yumuşak-g)

For 'Proper Names', add an apostophe in Turkish, before adding the possesive suffix, as in Perihan'ın arabası.
The To/For Case Dative case Denotes the indirect object of a verb and the object of any of certain verbs and prepositions. Expressed by a prepositional phrase with 'to/for'.
Example --
1) ...for the harpsichord
2) ...to the muscle
3) ...for the repairing
4) ...for the bread By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-e/a [or by -ye/ya after a vowel].
Example --
1) ...klavsene
2) ...adaleye
3) ...onarmaya
4) ...ekmeğe Before adding this suffix to nouns ending in k change the k to ğ (yumuşak-g)
The Place Case Locative Case Denotes the case 'where something is/has been/will be' or 'where something occurs/has occurred/will occur'. Expressed by a prepositional phrase with 'in, on, at'.
Example --
1) ...on the grape.
2) ...on the car.
3) ...in the book
4) ...in the jeep By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-de/da [or by -te/ta after ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş, or t].
Example --
1) ... üzümde
2) ...arabada
3) ...kitapta
4) ...cipte
The From/Than Case Ablative Case Denotes separation, direction away from, and sometimes manner or agency. Expressed by a prepositional phrase with 'from, out of, through, than'.
Example --
1) ...from the grape.
2) ...out of the car
3) ...than the book
4) ...from the jeep By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-den/dan [or by -ten/tan after ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş, or t].
Example --
1) ... üzümden
2) ...arabadan
3) ...kitaptan
4) ...cipten

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